3D vehicle detection and tracking from a monocular camera requires detecting and associating vehicles, and estimating their locations and extents together. It is challenging because vehicles are in constant motion and it is practically impossible to recover the 3D positions from a single image. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that jointly detects and tracks 3D vehicle bounding boxes. Our approach leverages 3D pose estimation to learn 2D patch association overtime and uses temporal information from tracking to obtain stable 3D estimation. Our method also leverages 3D box depth ordering and motion to link together the tracks of occluded objects. We train our system on realistic 3D virtual environments, collecting a new diverse, large-scale and densely annotated dataset with accurate 3D trajectory annotations. Our experiments demonstrate that our method benefits from inferring 3D for both data association and tracking robustness, leveraging our dynamic 3D tracking dataset.
This work addresses a novel and challenging problem of estimating the full 3D hand shape and pose from a single RGB image. Most current methods in 3D hand analysis from monocular RGB images only focus on estimating the 3D locations of hand keypoints, which cannot fully express the 3D shape of hand. In contrast, we propose a Graph Convolutional Neural Network (Graph CNN) based method to reconstruct a full 3D mesh of hand surface that contains richer information of both 3D hand shape and pose. To train networks with full supervision, we create a large-scale synthetic dataset containing both ground truth 3D meshes and 3D poses. When fine-tuning the networks on real-world datasets without 3D ground truth, we propose a weakly-supervised approach by leveraging the depth map as a weak supervision in training. Through extensive evaluations on our proposed new datasets and two public datasets, we show that our proposed method can produce accurate and reasonable 3D hand mesh, and can achieve superior 3D hand pose estimation accuracy when compared with state-of-the-art methods.
We propose a 3D object detection method for autonomous driving by fully exploiting the sparse and dense, semantic and geometry information in stereo imagery. Our method, called Stereo R-CNN, extends Faster R-CNN for stereo inputs to simultaneously detect and associate object in left and right images. We add extra branches after stereo Region Proposal Network (RPN) to predict sparse keypoints, viewpoints, and object dimensions, which are combined with 2D left-right boxes to calculate a coarse 3D object bounding box. We then recover the accurate 3D bounding box by a region-based photometric alignment using left and right RoIs. Our method does not require depth input and 3D position supervision, however, outperforms all existing fully supervised image-based methods. Experiments on the challenging KITTI dataset show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art stereo-based method by around 30% AP on both 3D detection and 3D localization tasks. Code will be made publicly available.
Accurate detection and tracking of objects is vital for effective video understanding. In previous work, the two tasks have been combined in a way that tracking is based heavily on detection, but the detection benefits marginally from the tracking. To increase synergy, we propose to more tightly integrate the tasks by conditioning the object detection in the current frame on tracklets computed in prior frames. With this approach, the object detection results not only have high detection responses, but also improved coherence with the existing tracklets. This greater coherence leads to estimated object trajectories that are smoother and more stable than the jittered paths obtained without tracklet-conditioned detection. Over extensive experiments, this approach is shown to achieve state-of-the-art performance in terms of both detection and tracking accuracy, as well as noticeable improvements in tracking stability.
We present a monocular Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) using high level object and plane landmarks, in addition to points. The resulting map is denser, more compact and meaningful compared to point only SLAM. We first propose a high order graphical model to jointly infer the 3D object and layout planes from single image considering occlusions and semantic constraints. The extracted cuboid object and layout planes are further optimized in a unified SLAM framework. Objects and planes can provide more semantic constraints such as Manhattan and object supporting relationships compared to points. Experiments on various public and collected datasets including ICL NUIM and TUM mono show that our algorithm can improve camera localization accuracy compared to state-of-the-art SLAM and also generate dense maps in many structured environments.
This paper addresses the problem of head detection in crowded environments. Our detection is based entirely on the geometric consistency across cameras with overlapping fields of view, and no additional learning process is required. We propose a fully unsupervised method for inferring scene and camera geometry, in contrast to existing algorithms which require specific calibration procedures. Moreover, we avoid relying on the presence of body parts other than heads or on background subtraction, which have limited effectiveness under heavy clutter. We cast the head detection problem as a stereo MRF-based optimization of a dense pedestrian height map, and we introduce a constraint which aligns the height gradient according to the vertical vanishing point direction. We validate the method in an outdoor setting with varying pedestrian density levels. With only three views, our approach is able to detect simultaneously tens of heavily occluded pedestrians across a large, homogeneous area.
We propose an algorithm for real-time 6DOF pose tracking of rigid 3D objects using a monocular RGB camera. The key idea is to derive a region-based cost function using temporally consistent local color histograms. While such region-based cost functions are commonly optimized using first-order gradient descent techniques, we systematically derive a Gauss-Newton optimization scheme which gives rise to drastically faster convergence and highly accurate and robust tracking performance. We furthermore propose a novel complex dataset dedicated for the task of monocular object pose tracking and make it publicly available to the community. To our knowledge, It is the first to address the common and important scenario in which both the camera as well as the objects are moving simultaneously in cluttered scenes. In numerous experiments - including our own proposed data set - we demonstrate that the proposed Gauss-Newton approach outperforms existing approaches, in particular in the presence of cluttered backgrounds, heterogeneous objects and partial occlusions.
In order to track all persons in a scene, the tracking-by-detection paradigm has proven to be a very effective approach. Yet, relying solely on a single detector is also a major limitation, as useful image information might be ignored. Consequently, this work demonstrates how to fuse two detectors into a tracking system. To obtain the trajectories, we propose to formulate tracking as a weighted graph labeling problem, resulting in a binary quadratic program. As such problems are NP-hard, the solution can only be approximated. Based on the Frank-Wolfe algorithm, we present a new solver that is crucial to handle such difficult problems. Evaluation on pedestrian tracking is provided for multiple scenarios, showing superior results over single detector tracking and standard QP-solvers. Finally, our tracker ranks 2nd on the MOT16 benchmark and 1st on the new MOT17 benchmark, outperforming over 90 trackers.
Monocular cameras are one of the most commonly used sensors in the automotive industry for autonomous vehicles. One major drawback using a monocular camera is that it only makes observations in the two dimensional image plane and can not directly measure the distance to objects. In this paper, we aim at filling this gap by developing a multi-object tracking algorithm that takes an image as input and produces trajectories of detected objects in a world coordinate system. We solve this by using a deep neural network trained to detect and estimate the distance to objects from a single input image. The detections from a sequence of images are fed in to a state-of-the art Poisson multi-Bernoulli mixture tracking filter. The combination of the learned detector and the PMBM filter results in an algorithm that achieves 3D tracking using only mono-camera images as input. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated both in 3D world coordinates, and 2D image coordinates, using the publicly available KITTI object tracking dataset. The algorithm shows the ability to accurately track objects, correctly handle data associations, even when there is a big overlap of the objects in the image, and is one of the top performing algorithms on the KITTI object tracking benchmark. Furthermore, the algorithm is efficient, running on average close to 20 frames per second.
In this work, we present a method for tracking and learning the dynamics of all objects in a large scale robot environment. A mobile robot patrols the environment and visits the different locations one by one. Movable objects are discovered by change detection, and tracked throughout the robot deployment. For tracking, we extend the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter of previous work with birth and death processes, enabling the method to handle an arbitrary number of objects. Target births and associations are sampled using Gibbs sampling. The parameters of the system are then learnt using the Expectation Maximization algorithm in an unsupervised fashion. The system therefore enables learning of the dynamics of one particular environment, and of its objects. The algorithm is evaluated on data collected autonomously by a mobile robot in an office environment during a real-world deployment. We show that the algorithm automatically identifies and tracks the moving objects within 3D maps and infers plausible dynamics models, significantly decreasing the modeling bias of our previous work. The proposed method represents an improvement over previous methods for environment dynamics learning as it allows for learning of fine grained processes.
This paper addresses the problem of estimating and tracking human body keypoints in complex, multi-person video. We propose an extremely lightweight yet highly effective approach that builds upon the latest advancements in human detection and video understanding. Our method operates in two-stages: keypoint estimation in frames or short clips, followed by lightweight tracking to generate keypoint predictions linked over the entire video. For frame-level pose estimation we experiment with Mask R-CNN, as well as our own proposed 3D extension of this model, which leverages temporal information over small clips to generate more robust frame predictions. We conduct extensive ablative experiments on the newly released multi-person video pose estimation benchmark, PoseTrack, to validate various design choices of our model. Our approach achieves an accuracy of 55.2% on the validation and 51.8% on the test set using the Multi-Object Tracking Accuracy (MOTA) metric, and achieves state of the art performance on the ICCV 2017 PoseTrack keypoint tracking challenge.