Commonsense knowledge is paramount to enable intelligent systems. Typically, it is characterized as being implicit and ambiguous, hindering thereby the automation of its acquisition. To address these challenges, this paper presents semantically enhanced models to enable reasoning through resolving part of commonsense ambiguity. The proposed models enhance in a knowledge graph embedding (KGE) framework for knowledge base completion. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the new semantic models in commonsense reasoning.
Knowledge graph completion aims to predict missing relations between entities in a knowledge graph. While many different methods have been proposed, there is a lack of a unifying framework that would lead to state-of-the-art results. Here we develop PathCon, a knowledge graph completion method that harnesses four novel insights to outperform existing methods. PathCon predicts relations between a pair of entities by: (1) Considering the Relational Context of each entity by capturing the relation types adjacent to the entity and modeled through a novel edge-based message passing scheme; (2) Considering the Relational Paths capturing all paths between the two entities; And, (3) adaptively integrating the Relational Context and Relational Path through a learnable attention mechanism. Importantly, (4) in contrast to conventional node-based representations, PathCon represents context and path only using the relation types, which makes it applicable in an inductive setting. Experimental results on knowledge graph benchmarks as well as our newly proposed dataset show that PathCon outperforms state-of-the-art knowledge graph completion methods by a large margin. Finally, PathCon is able to provide interpretable explanations by identifying relations that provide the context and paths that are important for a given predicted relation.
Human knowledge provides a formal understanding of the world. Knowledge graphs that represent structural relations between entities have become an increasingly popular research direction towards cognition and human-level intelligence. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive review on knowledge graph covering overall research topics about 1) knowledge graph representation learning, 2) knowledge acquisition and completion, 3) temporal knowledge graph, and 4) knowledge-aware applications, and summarize recent breakthroughs and perspective directions to facilitate future research. We propose a full-view categorization and new taxonomies on these topics. Knowledge graph embedding is organized from four aspects of representation space, scoring function, encoding models and auxiliary information. For knowledge acquisition, especially knowledge graph completion, embedding methods, path inference and logical rule reasoning are reviewed. We further explore several emerging topics including meta relational learning, commonsense reasoning, and temporal knowledge graphs. To facilitate future research on knowledge graphs, we also provide a curated collection of datasets and open-source libraries on different tasks. In the end, we have a thorough outlook on several promising research directions.
Automatic KB completion for commonsense knowledge graphs (e.g., ATOMIC and ConceptNet) poses unique challenges compared to the much studied conventional knowledge bases (e.g., Freebase). Commonsense knowledge graphs use free-form text to represent nodes, resulting in orders of magnitude more nodes compared to conventional KBs (18x more nodes in ATOMIC compared to Freebase (FB15K-237)). Importantly, this implies significantly sparser graph structures - a major challenge for existing KB completion methods that assume densely connected graphs over a relatively smaller set of nodes. In this paper, we present novel KB completion models that can address these challenges by exploiting the structural and semantic context of nodes. Specifically, we investigate two key ideas: (1) learning from local graph structure, using graph convolutional networks and automatic graph densification and (2) transfer learning from pre-trained language models to knowledge graphs for enhanced contextual representation of knowledge. We describe our method to incorporate information from both these sources in a joint model and provide the first empirical results for KB completion on ATOMIC and evaluation with ranking metrics on ConceptNet. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of language model representations in boosting link prediction performance and the advantages of learning from local graph structure (+1.5 points in MRR for ConceptNet) when training on subgraphs for computational efficiency. Further analysis on model predictions shines light on the types of commonsense knowledge that language models capture well.
Relevance search is to find top-ranked entities in a knowledge graph (KG) that are relevant to a query entity. Relevance is ambiguous, particularly over a schema-rich KG like DBpedia which supports a wide range of different semantics of relevance based on numerous types of relations and attributes. As users may lack the expertise to formalize the desired semantics, supervised methods have emerged to learn the hidden user-defined relevance from user-provided examples. Along this line, in this paper we propose a novel generative model over KGs for relevance search, named GREASE. The model applies to meta-path based relevance where a meta-path characterizes a particular type of semantics of relating the query entity to answer entities. It is also extended to support properties that constrain answer entities. Extensive experiments on two large-scale KGs demonstrate that GREASE has advanced the state of the art in effectiveness, expressiveness, and efficiency.
Knowledge graphs are important resources for many artificial intelligence tasks but often suffer from incompleteness. In this work, we propose to use pre-trained language models for knowledge graph completion. We treat triples in knowledge graphs as textual sequences and propose a novel framework named Knowledge Graph Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformer (KG-BERT) to model these triples. Our method takes entity and relation descriptions of a triple as input and computes scoring function of the triple with the KG-BERT language model. Experimental results on multiple benchmark knowledge graphs show that our method can achieve state-of-the-art performance in triple classification, link prediction and relation prediction tasks.
In order to facilitate the accesses of general users to knowledge graphs, an increasing effort is being exerted to construct graph-structured queries of given natural language questions. At the core of the construction is to deduce the structure of the target query and determine the vertices/edges which constitute the query. Existing query construction methods rely on question understanding and conventional graph-based algorithms which lead to inefficient and degraded performances facing complex natural language questions over knowledge graphs with large scales. In this paper, we focus on this problem and propose a novel framework standing on recent knowledge graph embedding techniques. Our framework first encodes the underlying knowledge graph into a low-dimensional embedding space by leveraging generalized local knowledge graphs. Given a natural language question, the learned embedding representations of the knowledge graph are utilized to compute the query structure and assemble vertices/edges into the target query. Extensive experiments were conducted on the benchmark dataset, and the results demonstrate that our framework outperforms state-of-the-art baseline models regarding effectiveness and efficiency.
Recent progress in pretraining language models on large textual corpora led to a surge of improvements for downstream NLP tasks. Whilst learning linguistic knowledge, these models may also be storing relational knowledge present in the training data, and may be able to answer queries structured as "fill-in-the-blank" cloze statements. Language models have many advantages over structured knowledge bases: they require no schema engineering, allow practitioners to query about an open class of relations, are easy to extend to more data, and require no human supervision to train. We present an in-depth analysis of the relational knowledge already present (without fine-tuning) in a wide range of state-of-the-art pretrained language models. We find that (i) without fine-tuning, BERT contains relational knowledge competitive with traditional NLP methods that have some access to oracle knowledge, (ii) BERT also does remarkably well on open-domain question answering against a supervised baseline, and (iii) certain types of factual knowledge are learned much more readily than others by standard language model pretraining approaches. The surprisingly strong ability of these models to recall factual knowledge without any fine-tuning demonstrates their potential as unsupervised open-domain QA systems. The code to reproduce our analysis is available at https://github.com/facebookresearch/LAMA.
Short text classification is one of important tasks in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Unlike paragraphs or documents, short texts are more ambiguous since they have not enough contextual information, which poses a great challenge for classification. In this paper, we retrieve knowledge from external knowledge source to enhance the semantic representation of short texts. We take conceptual information as a kind of knowledge and incorporate it into deep neural networks. For the purpose of measuring the importance of knowledge, we introduce attention mechanisms and propose deep Short Text Classification with Knowledge powered Attention (STCKA). We utilize Concept towards Short Text (C- ST) attention and Concept towards Concept Set (C-CS) attention to acquire the weight of concepts from two aspects. And we classify a short text with the help of conceptual information. Unlike traditional approaches, our model acts like a human being who has intrinsic ability to make decisions based on observation (i.e., training data for machines) and pays more attention to important knowledge. We also conduct extensive experiments on four public datasets for different tasks. The experimental results and case studies show that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, justifying the effectiveness of knowledge powered attention.
Knowledge graph (KG) completion aims to fill the missing facts in a KG, where a fact is represented as a triple in the form of $(subject, relation, object)$. Current KG completion models compel two-thirds of a triple provided (e.g., $subject$ and $relation$) to predict the remaining one. In this paper, we propose a new model, which uses a KG-specific multi-layer recurrent neural network (RNN) to model triples in a KG as sequences. It outperformed several state-of-the-art KG completion models on the conventional entity prediction task for many evaluation metrics, based on two benchmark datasets and a more difficult dataset. Furthermore, our model is enabled by the sequential characteristic and thus capable of predicting the whole triples only given one entity. Our experiments demonstrated that our model achieved promising performance on this new triple prediction task.
In the era of big data, people face enormous challenges in acquiring information and knowledge. A knowledge graph (KG) lays the foundation for the knowledge-based organization and intelligent application in the Internet age with its powerful semantic processing capabilities and open organization capabilities. In recent years, the research and applications of large-scale knowledge graph libraries have attracted increasing attention in academic and industrial circles. The knowledge graph aims to describe the various entities or concepts and their relationships existing in the objective world, which constitutes a huge semantic network map. It usually stores knowledge in the form of triples (head entity, relationship, tail entity), which can be simplified to $(h, r, t)$.