We present a continuous formulation of machine learning, as a problem in the calculus of variations and differential-integral equations, very much in the spirit of classical numerical analysis and statistical physics. We demonstrate that conventional machine learning models and algorithms, such as the random feature model, the shallow neural network model and the residual neural network model, can all be recovered as particular discretizations of different continuous formulations. We also present examples of new models, such as the flow-based random feature model, and new algorithms, such as the smoothed particle method and spectral method, that arise naturally from this continuous formulation. We discuss how the issues of generalization error and implicit regularization can be studied under this framework.
Graphical causal inference as pioneered by Judea Pearl arose from research on artificial intelligence (AI), and for a long time had little connection to the field of machine learning. This article discusses where links have been and should be established, introducing key concepts along the way. It argues that the hard open problems of machine learning and AI are intrinsically related to causality, and explains how the field is beginning to understand them.
Time Series Classification (TSC) is an important and challenging problem in data mining. With the increase of time series data availability, hundreds of TSC algorithms have been proposed. Among these methods, only a few have considered Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) to perform this task. This is surprising as deep learning has seen very successful applications in the last years. DNNs have indeed revolutionized the field of computer vision especially with the advent of novel deeper architectures such as Residual and Convolutional Neural Networks. Apart from images, sequential data such as text and audio can also be processed with DNNs to reach state-of-the-art performance for document classification and speech recognition. In this article, we study the current state-of-the-art performance of deep learning algorithms for TSC by presenting an empirical study of the most recent DNN architectures for TSC. We give an overview of the most successful deep learning applications in various time series domains under a unified taxonomy of DNNs for TSC. We also provide an open source deep learning framework to the TSC community where we implemented each of the compared approaches and evaluated them on a univariate TSC benchmark (the UCR/UEA archive) and 12 multivariate time series datasets. By training 8,730 deep learning models on 97 time series datasets, we propose the most exhaustive study of DNNs for TSC to date.
In this paper, we propose a deep reinforcement learning framework called GCOMB to learn algorithms that can solve combinatorial problems over large graphs. GCOMB mimics the greedy algorithm in the original problem and incrementally constructs a solution. The proposed framework utilizes Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) to generate node embeddings that predicts the potential nodes in the solution set from the entire node set. These embeddings enable an efficient training process to learn the greedy policy via Q-learning. Through extensive evaluation on several real and synthetic datasets containing up to a million nodes, we establish that GCOMB is up to 41% better than the state of the art, up to seven times faster than the greedy algorithm, robust and scalable to large dynamic networks.
This paper surveys the machine learning literature and presents machine learning as optimization models. Such models can benefit from the advancement of numerical optimization techniques which have already played a distinctive role in several machine learning settings. Particularly, mathematical optimization models are presented for commonly used machine learning approaches for regression, classification, clustering, and deep neural networks as well new emerging applications in machine teaching and empirical model learning. The strengths and the shortcomings of these models are discussed and potential research directions are highlighted.
Monocular image-based 3D reconstruction of faces is a long-standing problem in computer vision. Since image data is a 2D projection of a 3D face, the resulting depth ambiguity makes the problem ill-posed. Most existing methods rely on data-driven priors that are built from limited 3D face scans. In contrast, we propose multi-frame video-based self-supervised training of a deep network that (i) learns a face identity model both in shape and appearance while (ii) jointly learning to reconstruct 3D faces. Our face model is learned using only corpora of in-the-wild video clips collected from the Internet. This virtually endless source of training data enables learning of a highly general 3D face model. In order to achieve this, we propose a novel multi-frame consistency loss that ensures consistent shape and appearance across multiple frames of a subject's face, thus minimizing depth ambiguity. At test time we can use an arbitrary number of frames, so that we can perform both monocular as well as multi-frame reconstruction.
Despite huge success in the image domain, modern detection models such as Faster R-CNN have not been used nearly as much for video analysis. This is arguably due to the fact that detection models are designed to operate on single frames and as a result do not have a mechanism for learning motion representations directly from video. We propose a learning procedure that allows detection models such as Faster R-CNN to learn motion features directly from the RGB video data while being optimized with respect to a pose estimation task. Given a pair of video frames---Frame A and Frame B---we force our model to predict human pose in Frame A using the features from Frame B. We do so by leveraging deformable convolutions across space and time. Our network learns to spatially sample features from Frame B in order to maximize pose detection accuracy in Frame A. This naturally encourages our network to learn motion offsets encoding the spatial correspondences between the two frames. We refer to these motion offsets as DiMoFs (Discriminative Motion Features). In our experiments we show that our training scheme helps learn effective motion cues, which can be used to estimate and localize salient human motion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that as a byproduct, our model also learns features that lead to improved pose detection in still-images, and better keypoint tracking. Finally, we show how to leverage our learned model for the tasks of spatiotemporal action localization and fine-grained action recognition.
Machine learning methods are powerful in distinguishing different phases of matter in an automated way and provide a new perspective on the study of physical phenomena. We train a Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) on data constructed with spin configurations sampled from the Ising Hamiltonian at different values of temperature and external magnetic field using Monte Carlo methods. From the trained machine we obtain the flow of iterative reconstruction of spin state configurations to faithfully reproduce the observables of the physical system. We find that the flow of the trained RBM approaches the spin configurations of the maximal possible specific heat which resemble the near criticality region of the Ising model. In the special case of the vanishing magnetic field the trained RBM converges to the critical point of the Renormalization Group (RG) flow of the lattice model. Our results suggest an alternative explanation of how the machine identifies the physical phase transitions, by recognizing certain properties of the configuration like the maximization of the specific heat, instead of associating directly the recognition procedure with the RG flow and its fixed points. Then from the reconstructed data we deduce the critical exponent associated to the magnetization to find satisfactory agreement with the actual physical value. We assume no prior knowledge about the criticality of the system and its Hamiltonian.
This manuscript surveys reinforcement learning from the perspective of optimization and control with a focus on continuous control applications. It surveys the general formulation, terminology, and typical experimental implementations of reinforcement learning and reviews competing solution paradigms. In order to compare the relative merits of various techniques, this survey presents a case study of the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) with unknown dynamics, perhaps the simplest and best studied problem in optimal control. The manuscript describes how merging techniques from learning theory and control can provide non-asymptotic characterizations of LQR performance and shows that these characterizations tend to match experimental behavior. In turn, when revisiting more complex applications, many of the observed phenomena in LQR persist. In particular, theory and experiment demonstrate the role and importance of models and the cost of generality in reinforcement learning algorithms. This survey concludes with a discussion of some of the challenges in designing learning systems that safely and reliably interact with complex and uncertain environments and how tools from reinforcement learning and controls might be combined to approach these challenges.
In recent years, a specific machine learning method called deep learning has gained huge attraction, as it has obtained astonishing results in broad applications such as pattern recognition, speech recognition, computer vision, and natural language processing. Recent research has also been shown that deep learning techniques can be combined with reinforcement learning methods to learn useful representations for the problems with high dimensional raw data input. This chapter reviews the recent advances in deep reinforcement learning with a focus on the most used deep architectures such as autoencoders, convolutional neural networks and recurrent neural networks which have successfully been come together with the reinforcement learning framework.
Learning from a few examples remains a key challenge in machine learning. Despite recent advances in important domains such as vision and language, the standard supervised deep learning paradigm does not offer a satisfactory solution for learning new concepts rapidly from little data. In this work, we employ ideas from metric learning based on deep neural features and from recent advances that augment neural networks with external memories. Our framework learns a network that maps a small labelled support set and an unlabelled example to its label, obviating the need for fine-tuning to adapt to new class types. We then define one-shot learning problems on vision (using Omniglot, ImageNet) and language tasks. Our algorithm improves one-shot accuracy on ImageNet from 87.6% to 93.2% and from 88.0% to 93.8% on Omniglot compared to competing approaches. We also demonstrate the usefulness of the same model on language modeling by introducing a one-shot task on the Penn Treebank.