Embedding entities and relations into a continuous multi-dimensional vector space have become the dominant method for knowledge graph embedding in representation learning. However, most existing models ignore to represent hierarchical knowledge, such as the similarities and dissimilarities of entities in one domain. We proposed to learn a Domain Representations over existing knowledge graph embedding models, such that entities that have similar attributes are organized into the same domain. Such hierarchical knowledge of domains can give further evidence in link prediction. Experimental results show that domain embeddings give a significant improvement over the most recent state-of-art baseline knowledge graph embedding models.
Representation learning on a knowledge graph (KG) is to embed entities and relations of a KG into low-dimensional continuous vector spaces. Early KG embedding methods only pay attention to structured information encoded in triples, which would cause limited performance due to the structure sparseness of KGs. Some recent attempts consider paths information to expand the structure of KGs but lack explainability in the process of obtaining the path representations. In this paper, we propose a novel Rule and Path-based Joint Embedding (RPJE) scheme, which takes full advantage of the explainability and accuracy of logic rules, the generalization of KG embedding as well as the supplementary semantic structure of paths. Specifically, logic rules of different lengths (the number of relations in rule body) in the form of Horn clauses are first mined from the KG and elaborately encoded for representation learning. Then, the rules of length 2 are applied to compose paths accurately while the rules of length 1 are explicitly employed to create semantic associations among relations and constrain relation embeddings. Besides, the confidence level of each rule is also considered in optimization to guarantee the availability of applying the rule to representation learning. Extensive experimental results illustrate that RPJE outperforms other state-of-the-art baselines on KG completion task, which also demonstrate the superiority of utilizing logic rules as well as paths for improving the accuracy and explainability of representation learning.
Incompleteness is a common problem for existing knowledge graphs (KGs), and the completion of KG which aims to predict links between entities is challenging. Most existing KG completion methods only consider the direct relation between nodes and ignore the relation paths which contain useful information for link prediction. Recently, a few methods take relation paths into consideration but pay less attention to the order of relations in paths which is important for reasoning. In addition, these path-based models always ignore nonlinear contributions of path features for link prediction. To solve these problems, we propose a novel KG completion method named OPTransE. Instead of embedding both entities of a relation into the same latent space as in previous methods, we project the head entity and the tail entity of each relation into different spaces to guarantee the order of relations in the path. Meanwhile, we adopt a pooling strategy to extract nonlinear and complex features of different paths to further improve the performance of link prediction. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets show that the proposed model OPTransE performs better than state-of-the-art methods.
Pre-trained language representation models, such as BERT, capture a general language representation from large-scale corpora, but lack domain-specific knowledge. When reading a domain text, experts make inferences with relevant knowledge. For machines to achieve this capability, we propose a knowledge-enabled language representation model (K-BERT) with knowledge graphs (KGs), in which triples are injected into the sentences as domain knowledge. However, too much knowledge incorporation may divert the sentence from its correct meaning, which is called knowledge noise (KN) issue. To overcome KN, K-BERT introduces soft-position and visible matrix to limit the impact of knowledge. K-BERT can easily inject domain knowledge into the models by equipped with a KG without pre-training by-self because it is capable of loading model parameters from the pre-trained BERT. Our investigation reveals promising results in twelve NLP tasks. Especially in domain-specific tasks (including finance, law, and medicine), K-BERT significantly outperforms BERT, which demonstrates that K-BERT is an excellent choice for solving the knowledge-driven problems that require experts.
Knowledge graphs are important resources for many artificial intelligence tasks but often suffer from incompleteness. In this work, we propose to use pre-trained language models for knowledge graph completion. We treat triples in knowledge graphs as textual sequences and propose a novel framework named Knowledge Graph Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformer (KG-BERT) to model these triples. Our method takes entity and relation descriptions of a triple as input and computes scoring function of the triple with the KG-BERT language model. Experimental results on multiple benchmark knowledge graphs show that our method can achieve state-of-the-art performance in triple classification, link prediction and relation prediction tasks.
We introduce a new method DOLORES for learning knowledge graph embeddings that effectively captures contextual cues and dependencies among entities and relations. First, we note that short paths on knowledge graphs comprising of chains of entities and relations can encode valuable information regarding their contextual usage. We operationalize this notion by representing knowledge graphs not as a collection of triples but as a collection of entity-relation chains, and learn embeddings for entities and relations using deep neural models that capture such contextual usage. In particular, our model is based on Bi-Directional LSTMs and learn deep representations of entities and relations from constructed entity-relation chains. We show that these representations can very easily be incorporated into existing models to significantly advance the state of the art on several knowledge graph prediction tasks like link prediction, triple classification, and missing relation type prediction (in some cases by at least 9.5%).
Recent years have witnessed the enormous success of low-dimensional vector space representations of knowledge graphs to predict missing facts or find erroneous ones. Currently, however, it is not yet well-understood how ontological knowledge, e.g. given as a set of (existential) rules, can be embedded in a principled way. To address this shortcoming, in this paper we introduce a framework based on convex regions, which can faithfully incorporate ontological knowledge into the vector space embedding. Our technical contribution is two-fold. First, we show that some of the most popular existing embedding approaches are not capable of modelling even very simple types of rules. Second, we show that our framework can represent ontologies that are expressed using so-called quasi-chained existential rules in an exact way, such that any set of facts which is induced using that vector space embedding is logically consistent and deductively closed with respect to the input ontology.
A visual-relational knowledge graph (KG) is a multi-relational graph whose entities are associated with images. We introduce ImageGraph, a KG with 1,330 relation types, 14,870 entities, and 829,931 images. Visual-relational KGs lead to novel probabilistic query types where images are treated as first-class citizens. Both the prediction of relations between unseen images and multi-relational image retrieval can be formulated as query types in a visual-relational KG. We approach the problem of answering such queries with a novel combination of deep convolutional networks and models for learning knowledge graph embeddings. The resulting models can answer queries such as "How are these two unseen images related to each other?" We also explore a zero-shot learning scenario where an image of an entirely new entity is linked with multiple relations to entities of an existing KG. The multi-relational grounding of unseen entity images into a knowledge graph serves as the description of such an entity. We conduct experiments to demonstrate that the proposed deep architectures in combination with KG embedding objectives can answer the visual-relational queries efficiently and accurately.
Knowledge Graph Embedding methods aim at representing entities and relations in a knowledge base as points or vectors in a continuous vector space. Several approaches using embeddings have shown promising results on tasks such as link prediction, entity recommendation, question answering, and triplet classification. However, only a few methods can compute low-dimensional embeddings of very large knowledge bases. In this paper, we propose KG2Vec, a novel approach to Knowledge Graph Embedding based on the skip-gram model. Instead of using a predefined scoring function, we learn it relying on Long Short-Term Memories. We evaluated the goodness of our embeddings on knowledge graph completion and show that KG2Vec is comparable to the quality of the scalable state-of-the-art approaches and can process large graphs by parsing more than a hundred million triples in less than 6 hours on common hardware.
Knowledge graphs contain rich relational structures of the world, and thus complement data-driven machine learning in heterogeneous data. One of the most effective methods in representing knowledge graphs is to embed symbolic relations and entities into continuous spaces, where relations are approximately linear translation between projected images of entities in the relation space. However, state-of-the-art relation projection methods such as TransR, TransD or TransSparse do not model the correlation between relations, and thus are not scalable to complex knowledge graphs with thousands of relations, both in computational demand and in statistical robustness. To this end we introduce TransF, a novel translation-based method which mitigates the burden of relation projection by explicitly modeling the basis subspaces of projection matrices. As a result, TransF is far more light weight than the existing projection methods, and is robust when facing a high number of relations. Experimental results on the canonical link prediction task show that our proposed model outperforms competing rivals by a large margin and achieves state-of-the-art performance. Especially, TransF improves by 9%/5% in the head/tail entity prediction task for N-to-1/1-to-N relations over the best performing translation-based method.
We address the problem of learning vector representations for entities and relations in Knowledge Graphs (KGs) for Knowledge Base Completion (KBC). This problem has received significant attention in the past few years and multiple methods have been proposed. Most of the existing methods in the literature use a predefined characteristic scoring function for evaluating the correctness of KG triples. These scoring functions distinguish correct triples (high score) from incorrect ones (low score). However, their performance vary across different datasets. In this work, we demonstrate that a simple neural network based score function can consistently achieve near start-of-the-art performance on multiple datasets. We also quantitatively demonstrate biases in standard benchmark datasets, and highlight the need to perform evaluation spanning various datasets.