Deep supervised learning has achieved great success in the last decade. However, its deficiencies of dependence on manual labels and vulnerability to attacks have driven people to explore a better solution. As an alternative, self-supervised learning attracts many researchers for its soaring performance on representation learning in the last several years. Self-supervised representation learning leverages input data itself as supervision and benefits almost all types of downstream tasks. In this survey, we take a look into new self-supervised learning methods for representation in computer vision, natural language processing, and graph learning. We comprehensively review the existing empirical methods and summarize them into three main categories according to their objectives: generative, contrastive, and generative-contrastive (adversarial). We further investigate related theoretical analysis work to provide deeper thoughts on how self-supervised learning works. Finally, we briefly discuss open problems and future directions for self-supervised learning. An outline slide for the survey is provided.

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表示学习是通过利用训练数据来学习得到向量表示,这可以克服人工方法的局限性。 表示学习通常可分为两大类,无监督和有监督表示学习。大多数无监督表示学习方法利用自动编码器(如去噪自动编码器和稀疏自动编码器等)中的隐变量作为表示。 目前出现的变分自动编码器能够更好的容忍噪声和异常值。 然而,推断给定数据的潜在结构几乎是不可能的。 目前有一些近似推断的策略。 此外,一些无监督表示学习方法旨在近似某种特定的相似性度量。提出了一种无监督的相似性保持表示学习框架,该框架使用矩阵分解来保持成对的DTW相似性。 通过学习保持DTW的shaplets,即在转换后的空间中的欧式距离近似原始数据的真实DTW距离。有监督表示学习方法可以利用数据的标签信息,更好地捕获数据的语义结构。 孪生网络和三元组网络是目前两种比较流行的模型,它们的目标是最大化类别之间的距离并最小化了类别内部的距离。

Self-supervised contrastive learning offers a means of learning informative features from a pool of unlabeled data. In this paper, we delve into another useful approach -- providing a way of selecting a core-set that is entirely unlabeled. In this regard, contrastive learning, one of a large number of self-supervised methods, was recently proposed and has consistently delivered the highest performance. This prompted us to choose two leading methods for contrastive learning: the simple framework for contrastive learning of visual representations (SimCLR) and the momentum contrastive (MoCo) learning framework. We calculated the cosine similarities for each example of an epoch for the entire duration of the contrastive learning process and subsequently accumulated the cosine-similarity values to obtain the coreset score. Our assumption was that an sample with low similarity would likely behave as a coreset. Compared with existing coreset selection methods with labels, our approach reduced the cost associated with human annotation. The unsupervised method implemented in this study for coreset selection obtained improved results over a randomly chosen subset, and were comparable to existing supervised coreset selection on various classification datasets (e.g., CIFAR, SVHN, and QMNIST).

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To date, most existing self-supervised learning methods are designed and optimized for image classification. These pre-trained models can be sub-optimal for dense prediction tasks due to the discrepancy between image-level prediction and pixel-level prediction. To fill this gap, we aim to design an effective, dense self-supervised learning method that directly works at the level of pixels (or local features) by taking into account the correspondence between local features. We present dense contrastive learning, which implements self-supervised learning by optimizing a pairwise contrastive (dis)similarity loss at the pixel level between two views of input images. Compared to the baseline method MoCo-v2, our method introduces negligible computation overhead (only <1% slower), but demonstrates consistently superior performance when transferring to downstream dense prediction tasks including object detection, semantic segmentation and instance segmentation; and outperforms the state-of-the-art methods by a large margin. Specifically, over the strong MoCo-v2 baseline, our method achieves significant improvements of 2.0% AP on PASCAL VOC object detection, 1.1% AP on COCO object detection, 0.9% AP on COCO instance segmentation, 3.0% mIoU on PASCAL VOC semantic segmentation and 1.8% mIoU on Cityscapes semantic segmentation. Code is available at: https://git.io/AdelaiDet

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This paper serves as a survey of recent advances in large margin training and its theoretical foundations, mostly for (nonlinear) deep neural networks (DNNs) that are probably the most prominent machine learning models for large-scale data in the community over the past decade. We generalize the formulation of classification margins from classical research to latest DNNs, summarize theoretical connections between the margin, network generalization, and robustness, and introduce recent efforts in enlarging the margins for DNNs comprehensively. Since the viewpoint of different methods is discrepant, we categorize them into groups for ease of comparison and discussion in the paper. Hopefully, our discussions and overview inspire new research work in the community that aim to improve the performance of DNNs, and we also point to directions where the large margin principle can be verified to provide theoretical evidence why certain regularizations for DNNs function well in practice. We managed to shorten the paper such that the crucial spirit of large margin learning and related methods are better emphasized.

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Unsupervised aspect detection (UAD) aims at automatically extracting interpretable aspects and identifying aspect-specific segments (such as sentences) from online reviews. However, recent deep learning-based topic models, specifically aspect-based autoencoder, suffer from several problems, such as extracting noisy aspects and poorly mapping aspects discovered by models to the aspects of interest. To tackle these challenges, in this paper, we first propose a self-supervised contrastive learning framework and an attention-based model equipped with a novel smooth self-attention (SSA) module for the UAD task in order to learn better representations for aspects and review segments. Secondly, we introduce a high-resolution selective mapping (HRSMap) method to efficiently assign aspects discovered by the model to aspects of interest. We also propose using a knowledge distilling technique to further improve the aspect detection performance. Our methods outperform several recent unsupervised and weakly supervised approaches on publicly available benchmark user review datasets. Aspect interpretation results show that extracted aspects are meaningful, have good coverage, and can be easily mapped to aspects of interest. Ablation studies and attention weight visualization also demonstrate the effectiveness of SSA and the knowledge distilling method.

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A prominent technique for self-supervised representation learning has been to contrast semantically similar and dissimilar pairs of samples. Without access to labels, dissimilar (negative) points are typically taken to be randomly sampled datapoints, implicitly accepting that these points may, in reality, actually have the same label. Perhaps unsurprisingly, we observe that sampling negative examples from truly different labels improves performance, in a synthetic setting where labels are available. Motivated by this observation, we develop a debiased contrastive objective that corrects for the sampling of same-label datapoints, even without knowledge of the true labels. Empirically, the proposed objective consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art for representation learning in vision, language, and reinforcement learning benchmarks. Theoretically, we establish generalization bounds for the downstream classification task.

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We consider the question: how can you sample good negative examples for contrastive learning? We argue that, as with metric learning, learning contrastive representations benefits from hard negative samples (i.e., points that are difficult to distinguish from an anchor point). The key challenge toward using hard negatives is that contrastive methods must remain unsupervised, making it infeasible to adopt existing negative sampling strategies that use label information. In response, we develop a new class of unsupervised methods for selecting hard negative samples where the user can control the amount of hardness. A limiting case of this sampling results in a representation that tightly clusters each class, and pushes different classes as far apart as possible. The proposed method improves downstream performance across multiple modalities, requires only few additional lines of code to implement, and introduces no computational overhead.

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Graph-based Semi-Supervised Learning (SSL) aims to transfer the labels of a handful of labeled data to the remaining massive unlabeled data via a graph. As one of the most popular graph-based SSL approaches, the recently proposed Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs) have gained remarkable progress by combining the sound expressiveness of neural networks with graph structure. Nevertheless, the existing graph-based methods do not directly address the core problem of SSL, i.e., the shortage of supervision, and thus their performances are still very limited. To accommodate this issue, a novel GCN-based SSL algorithm is presented in this paper to enrich the supervision signals by utilizing both data similarities and graph structure. Firstly, by designing a semi-supervised contrastive loss, improved node representations can be generated via maximizing the agreement between different views of the same data or the data from the same class. Therefore, the rich unlabeled data and the scarce yet valuable labeled data can jointly provide abundant supervision information for learning discriminative node representations, which helps improve the subsequent classification result. Secondly, the underlying determinative relationship between the data features and input graph topology is extracted as supplementary supervision signals for SSL via using a graph generative loss related to the input features. Intensive experimental results on a variety of real-world datasets firmly verify the effectiveness of our algorithm compared with other state-of-the-art methods.

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There has been appreciable progress in unsupervised network representation learning (UNRL) approaches over graphs recently with flexible random-walk approaches, new optimization objectives and deep architectures. However, there is no common ground for systematic comparison of embeddings to understand their behavior for different graphs and tasks. In this paper we theoretically group different approaches under a unifying framework and empirically investigate the effectiveness of different network representation methods. In particular, we argue that most of the UNRL approaches either explicitly or implicit model and exploit context information of a node. Consequently, we propose a framework that casts a variety of approaches -- random walk based, matrix factorization and deep learning based -- into a unified context-based optimization function. We systematically group the methods based on their similarities and differences. We study the differences among these methods in detail which we later use to explain their performance differences (on downstream tasks). We conduct a large-scale empirical study considering 9 popular and recent UNRL techniques and 11 real-world datasets with varying structural properties and two common tasks -- node classification and link prediction. We find that there is no single method that is a clear winner and that the choice of a suitable method is dictated by certain properties of the embedding methods, task and structural properties of the underlying graph. In addition we also report the common pitfalls in evaluation of UNRL methods and come up with suggestions for experimental design and interpretation of results.

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Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have been extensively studied in the past few years. Arguably the revolutionary techniques are in the area of computer vision such as plausible image generation, image to image translation, facial attribute manipulation and similar domains. Despite the significant success achieved in computer vision field, applying GANs over real-world problems still have three main challenges: (1) High quality image generation; (2) Diverse image generation; and (3) Stable training. Considering numerous GAN-related research in the literature, we provide a study on the architecture-variants and loss-variants, which are proposed to handle these three challenges from two perspectives. We propose loss and architecture-variants for classifying most popular GANs, and discuss the potential improvements with focusing on these two aspects. While several reviews for GANs have been presented, there is no work focusing on the review of GAN-variants based on handling challenges mentioned above. In this paper, we review and critically discuss 7 architecture-variant GANs and 9 loss-variant GANs for remedying those three challenges. The objective of this review is to provide an insight on the footprint that current GANs research focuses on the performance improvement. Code related to GAN-variants studied in this work is summarized on https://github.com/sheqi/GAN_Review.

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