“机器学习是近20多年兴起的一门多领域交叉学科,涉及概率论、统计学、逼近论、凸分析、算法复杂度理论等多门学科。机器学习理论主要是设计和分析一些让 可以自动“ 学习”的算法。机器学习算法是一类从数据中自动分析获得规律,并利用规律对未知数据进行预测的算法。因为学习算法中涉及了大量的统计学理论,机器学习与统计推断学联系尤为密切,也被称为统计学习理论。算法设计方面,机器学习理论关注可以实现的,行之有效的学习算法。很多 推论问题属于 无程序可循难度,所以部分的机器学习研究是开发容易处理的近似算法。” ——中文维基百科

Ensemble-based modifications of the well-known SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) method for the local explanation of a black-box model are proposed. The modifications aim to simplify SHAP which is computationally expensive when there is a large number of features. The main idea behind the proposed modifications is to approximate SHAP by an ensemble of SHAPs with a smaller number of features. According to the first modification, called ER-SHAP, several features are randomly selected many times from the feature set, and Shapley values for the features are computed by means of "small" SHAPs. The explanation results are averaged to get the final Shapley values. According to the second modification, called ERW-SHAP, several points are generated around the explained instance for diversity purposes, and results of their explanation are combined with weights depending on distances between points and the explained instance. The third modification, called ER-SHAP-RF, uses the random forest for preliminary explanation of instances and determining a feature probability distribution which is applied to selection of features in the ensemble-based procedure of ER-SHAP. Many numerical experiments illustrating the proposed modifications demonstrate their efficiency and properties for local explanation.

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Pretext-based self-supervised learning aims to learn the semantic representation via a handcrafted pretext task over unlabeled data and then use the learned representation for downstream prediction tasks. \citet{lee2020predicting} prove that pretext-based self-supervised learning can effectively reduce the sample complexity of downstream tasks under Conditional Independence (CI) between the components of the pretext task conditional on the downstream label. However, the CI condition rarely holds in practice, and the downstream sample complexity will get much worse if the CI condition does not hold. In this paper, we explore the idea of applying a learnable function to the input to make the CI condition hold. In particular, we first rigorously formulate the criteria that the function needs to satisfy. We then design an ingenious loss function for learning such a function and prove that the function minimizing the proposed loss satisfies the above criteria. We theoretically study the number of labeled data required, and give a model-free lower bound showing that taking limited downstream data will hurt the performance of self-supervised learning. Furthermore, we take the model structure into account and give a model-dependent lower bound, which gets higher when the model capacity gets larger. Moreover, we conduct several numerical experiments to verify our theoretical results.

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We propose a variational autoencoder architecture to model both ignorable and nonignorable missing data using pattern-set mixtures as proposed by Little (1993). Our model explicitly learns to cluster the missing data into missingness pattern sets based on the observed data and missingness masks. Underpinning our approach is the assumption that the data distribution under missingness is probabilistically semi-supervised by samples from the observed data distribution. Our setup trades off the characteristics of ignorable and nonignorable missingness and can thus be applied to data of both types. We evaluate our method on a wide range of data sets with different types of missingness and achieve state-of-the-art imputation performance. Our model outperforms many common imputation algorithms, especially when the amount of missing data is high and the missingness mechanism is nonignorable.

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Naively trained neural networks tend to experience catastrophic forgetting in sequential task settings, where data from previous tasks are unavailable. A number of methods, using various model expansion strategies, have been proposed recently as possible solutions. However, determining how much to expand the model is left to the practitioner, and often a constant schedule is chosen for simplicity, regardless of how complex the incoming task is. Instead, we propose a principled Bayesian nonparametric approach based on the Indian Buffet Process (IBP) prior, letting the data determine how much to expand the model complexity. We pair this with a factorization of the neural network's weight matrices. Such an approach allows the number of factors of each weight matrix to scale with the complexity of the task, while the IBP prior encourages sparse weight factor selection and factor reuse, promoting positive knowledge transfer between tasks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on a number of continual learning benchmarks and analyze how weight factors are allocated and reused throughout the training.

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The high dimensionality of images presents architecture and sampling-efficiency challenges for likelihood-based generative models. Previous approaches such as VQ-VAE use deep autoencoders to obtain compact representations, which are more practical as inputs for likelihood-based models. We present an alternative approach, inspired by common image compression methods like JPEG, and convert images to quantized discrete cosine transform (DCT) blocks, which are represented sparsely as a sequence of DCT channel, spatial location, and DCT coefficient triples. We propose a Transformer-based autoregressive architecture, which is trained to sequentially predict the conditional distribution of the next element in such sequences, and which scales effectively to high resolution images. On a range of image datasets, we demonstrate that our approach can generate high quality, diverse images, with sample metric scores competitive with state of the art methods. We additionally show that simple modifications to our method yield effective image colorization and super-resolution models.

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We introduce a method to determine if a certain capability helps to achieve an accurate model of given data. We view labels as being generated from the inputs by a program composed of subroutines with different capabilities, and we posit that a subroutine is useful if and only if the minimal program that invokes it is shorter than the one that does not. Since minimum program length is uncomputable, we instead estimate the labels' minimum description length (MDL) as a proxy, giving us a theoretically-grounded method for analyzing dataset characteristics. We call the method Rissanen Data Analysis (RDA) after the father of MDL, and we showcase its applicability on a wide variety of settings in NLP, ranging from evaluating the utility of generating subquestions before answering a question, to analyzing the value of rationales and explanations, to investigating the importance of different parts of speech, and uncovering dataset gender bias.

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