We propose a novel two-layered attention network based on Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory for sentiment analysis. The novel two-layered attention network takes advantage of the external knowledge bases to improve the sentiment prediction. It uses the Knowledge Graph Embedding generated using the WordNet. We build our model by combining the two-layered attention network with the supervised model based on Support Vector Regression using a Multilayer Perceptron network for sentiment analysis. We evaluate our model on the benchmark dataset of SemEval 2017 Task 5. Experimental results show that the proposed model surpasses the top system of SemEval 2017 Task 5. The model performs significantly better by improving the state-of-the-art system at SemEval 2017 Task 5 by 1.7 and 3.7 points for sub-tracks 1 and 2 respectively.
Aspect level sentiment classification aims to identify the sentiment expressed towards an aspect given a context sentence. Previous neural network based methods largely ignore the syntax structure in one sentence. In this paper, we propose a novel target-dependent graph attention network (TD-GAT) for aspect level sentiment classification, which explicitly utilizes the dependency relationship among words. Using the dependency graph, it propagates sentiment features directly from the syntactic context of an aspect target. In our experiments, we show our method outperforms multiple baselines with GloVe embeddings. We also demonstrate that using BERT representations further substantially boosts the performance.
While the general task of textual sentiment classification has been widely studied, much less research looks specifically at sentiment between a specified source and target. To tackle this problem, we experimented with a state-of-the-art relation extraction model. Surprisingly, we found that despite reasonable performance, the model's attention was often systematically misaligned with the words that contribute to sentiment. Thus, we directly trained the model's attention with human rationales and improved our model performance by a robust 4~8 points on all tasks we defined on our data sets. We also present a rigorous analysis of the model's attention, both trained and untrained, using novel and intuitive metrics. Our results show that untrained attention does not provide faithful explanations; however, trained attention with concisely annotated human rationales not only increases performance, but also brings faithful explanations. Encouragingly, a small amount of annotated human rationales suffice to correct the attention in our task.
This paper proposes a way to improve the performance of existing algorithms for text classification in domains with strong language semantics. We propose a domain adaptation layer learns weights to combine a generic and a domain specific (DS) word embedding into a domain adapted (DA) embedding. The DA word embeddings are then used as inputs to a generic encoder + classifier framework to perform a downstream task such as classification. This adaptation layer is particularly suited to datasets that are modest in size, and which are, therefore, not ideal candidates for (re)training a deep neural network architecture. Results on binary and multi-class classification tasks using popular encoder architectures, including current state-of-the-art methods (with and without the shallow adaptation layer) show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
The emerging technique of deep learning has been widely applied in many different areas. However, when adopted in a certain specific domain, this technique should be combined with domain knowledge to improve efficiency and accuracy. In particular, when analyzing the applications of deep learning in sentiment analysis, we found that the current approaches are suffering from the following drawbacks: (i) the existing works have not paid much attention to the importance of different types of sentiment terms, which is an important concept in this area; and (ii) the loss function currently employed does not well reflect the degree of error of sentiment misclassification. To overcome such problem, we propose to combine domain knowledge with deep learning. Our proposal includes using sentiment scores, learnt by regression, to augment training data; and introducing penalty matrix for enhancing the loss function of cross entropy. When experimented, we achieved a significant improvement in classification results.
Domain adaptation for sentiment analysis is challenging due to the fact that supervised classifiers are very sensitive to changes in domain. The two most prominent approaches to this problem are structural correspondence learning and autoencoders. However, they either require long training times or suffer greatly on highly divergent domains. Inspired by recent advances in cross-lingual sentiment analysis, we provide a novel perspective and cast the domain adaptation problem as an embedding projection task. Our model takes as input two mono-domain embedding spaces and learns to project them to a bi-domain space, which is jointly optimized to (1) project across domains and to (2) predict sentiment. We perform domain adaptation experiments on 20 source-target domain pairs for sentiment classification and report novel state-of-the-art results on 11 domain pairs, including the Amazon domain adaptation datasets and SemEval 2013 and 2016 datasets. Our analysis shows that our model performs comparably to state-of-the-art approaches on domains that are similar, while performing significantly better on highly divergent domains. Our code is available at https://github.com/jbarnesspain/domain_blse
Sentiment analysis is a widely studied NLP task where the goal is to determine opinions, emotions, and evaluations of users towards a product, an entity or a service that they are reviewing. One of the biggest challenges for sentiment analysis is that it is highly language dependent. Word embeddings, sentiment lexicons, and even annotated data are language specific. Further, optimizing models for each language is very time consuming and labor intensive especially for recurrent neural network models. From a resource perspective, it is very challenging to collect data for different languages. In this paper, we look for an answer to the following research question: can a sentiment analysis model trained on a language be reused for sentiment analysis in other languages, Russian, Spanish, Turkish, and Dutch, where the data is more limited? Our goal is to build a single model in the language with the largest dataset available for the task, and reuse it for languages that have limited resources. For this purpose, we train a sentiment analysis model using recurrent neural networks with reviews in English. We then translate reviews in other languages and reuse this model to evaluate the sentiments. Experimental results show that our robust approach of single model trained on English reviews statistically significantly outperforms the baselines in several different languages.
We propose a novel approach to multimodal sentiment analysis using deep neural networks combining visual analysis and natural language processing. Our goal is different than the standard sentiment analysis goal of predicting whether a sentence expresses positive or negative sentiment; instead, we aim to infer the latent emotional state of the user. Thus, we focus on predicting the emotion word tags attached by users to their Tumblr posts, treating these as "self-reported emotions." We demonstrate that our multimodal model combining both text and image features outperforms separate models based solely on either images or text. Our model's results are interpretable, automatically yielding sensible word lists associated with emotions. We explore the structure of emotions implied by our model and compare it to what has been posited in the psychology literature, and validate our model on a set of images that have been used in psychology studies. Finally, our work also provides a useful tool for the growing academic study of images - both photographs and memes - on social networks.
Aspect based sentiment analysis (ABSA) can provide more detailed information than general sentiment analysis, because it aims to predict the sentiment polarities of the given aspects or entities in text. We summarize previous approaches into two subtasks: aspect-category sentiment analysis (ACSA) and aspect-term sentiment analysis (ATSA). Most previous approaches employ long short-term memory and attention mechanisms to predict the sentiment polarity of the concerned targets, which are often complicated and need more training time. We propose a model based on convolutional neural networks and gating mechanisms, which is more accurate and efficient. First, the novel Gated Tanh-ReLU Units can selectively output the sentiment features according to the given aspect or entity. The architecture is much simpler than attention layer used in the existing models. Second, the computations of our model could be easily parallelized during training, because convolutional layers do not have time dependency as in LSTM layers, and gating units also work independently. The experiments on SemEval datasets demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our models.
This project addresses the problem of sentiment analysis in twitter; that is classifying tweets according to the sentiment expressed in them: positive, negative or neutral. Twitter is an online micro-blogging and social-networking platform which allows users to write short status updates of maximum length 140 characters. It is a rapidly expanding service with over 200 million registered users - out of which 100 million are active users and half of them log on twitter on a daily basis - generating nearly 250 million tweets per day. Due to this large amount of usage we hope to achieve a reflection of public sentiment by analysing the sentiments expressed in the tweets. Analysing the public sentiment is important for many applications such as firms trying to find out the response of their products in the market, predicting political elections and predicting socioeconomic phenomena like stock exchange. The aim of this project is to develop a functional classifier for accurate and automatic sentiment classification of an unknown tweet stream.