Online multi-object tracking (MOT) is extremely important for high-level spatial reasoning and path planning for autonomous and highly-automated vehicles. In this paper, we present a modular framework for tracking multiple objects (vehicles), capable of accepting object proposals from different sensor modalities (vision and range) and a variable number of sensors, to produce continuous object tracks. This work is inspired by traditional tracking-by-detection approaches in computer vision, with some key differences - First, we track objects across multiple cameras and across different sensor modalities. This is done by fusing object proposals across sensors accurately and efficiently. Second, the objects of interest (targets) are tracked directly in the real world. This is a departure from traditional techniques where objects are simply tracked in the image plane. Doing so allows the tracks to be readily used by an autonomous agent for navigation and related tasks. To verify the effectiveness of our approach, we test it on real world highway data collected from a heavily sensorized testbed capable of capturing full-surround information. We demonstrate that our framework is well-suited to track objects through entire maneuvers around the ego-vehicle, some of which take more than a few minutes to complete. We also leverage the modularity of our approach by comparing the effects of including/excluding different sensors, changing the total number of sensors, and the quality of object proposals on the final tracking result.
Since DARPA Grand Challenges (rural) in 2004/05 and Urban Challenges in 2007, autonomous driving has been the most active field of AI applications. Almost at the same time, deep learning has made breakthrough by several pioneers, three of them (also called fathers of deep learning), Hinton, Bengio and LeCun, won ACM Turin Award in 2019. This is a survey of autonomous driving technologies with deep learning methods. We investigate the major fields of self-driving systems, such as perception, mapping and localization, prediction, planning and control, simulation, V2X and safety etc. Due to the limited space, we focus the analysis on several key areas, i.e. 2D and 3D object detection in perception, depth estimation from cameras, multiple sensor fusion on the data, feature and task level respectively, behavior modelling and prediction of vehicle driving and pedestrian trajectories.
Deep neural networks (DNNs) are found to be vulnerable against adversarial examples, which are carefully crafted inputs with a small magnitude of perturbation aiming to induce arbitrarily incorrect predictions. Recent studies show that adversarial examples can pose a threat to real-world security-critical applications: a "physical adversarial Stop Sign" can be synthesized such that the autonomous driving cars will misrecognize it as others (e.g., a speed limit sign). However, these image-space adversarial examples cannot easily alter 3D scans of widely equipped LiDAR or radar on autonomous vehicles. In this paper, we reveal the potential vulnerabilities of LiDAR-based autonomous driving detection systems, by proposing an optimization based approach LiDAR-Adv to generate adversarial objects that can evade the LiDAR-based detection system under various conditions. We first show the vulnerabilities using a blackbox evolution-based algorithm, and then explore how much a strong adversary can do, using our gradient-based approach LiDAR-Adv. We test the generated adversarial objects on the Baidu Apollo autonomous driving platform and show that such physical systems are indeed vulnerable to the proposed attacks. We also 3D-print our adversarial objects and perform physical experiments to illustrate that such vulnerability exists in the real world. Please find more visualizations and results on the anonymous website: https://sites.google.com/view/lidar-adv.
Convolutions on monocular dash cam videos capture spatial invariances in the image plane but do not explicitly reason about distances and depth. We propose a simple transformation of observations into a bird's eye view, also known as plan view, for end-to-end control. We detect vehicles and pedestrians in the first person view and project them into an overhead plan view. This representation provides an abstraction of the environment from which a deep network can easily deduce the positions and directions of entities. Additionally, the plan view enables us to leverage advances in 3D object detection in conjunction with deep policy learning. We evaluate our monocular plan view network on the photo-realistic Grand Theft Auto V simulator. A network using both a plan view and front view causes less than half as many collisions as previous detection-based methods and an order of magnitude fewer collisions than pure pixel-based policies.
Tracking vehicles in LIDAR point clouds is a challenging task due to the sparsity of the data and the dense search space. The lack of structure in point clouds impedes the use of convolution and correlation filters usually employed in 2D object tracking. In addition, structuring point clouds is cumbersome and implies losing fine-grained information. As a result, generating proposals in 3D space is expensive and inefficient. In this paper, we leverage the dense and structured Bird Eye View (BEV) representation of LIDAR point clouds to efficiently search for objects of interest. We use an efficient Region Proposal Network and generate a small number of object proposals in 3D. Successively, we refine our selection of 3D object candidates by exploiting the similarity capability of a 3D Siamese network. We regularize the latter 3D Siamese network for shape completion to enhance its discrimination capability. Our method attempts to solve both for an efficient search space in the BEV space and a meaningful selection using 3D LIDAR point cloud. We show that the Region Proposal in the BEV outperforms Bayesian methods such as Kalman and Particle Filters in providing proposal by a significant margin and that such candidates are suitable for the 3D Siamese network. By training our method end-to-end, we outperform the previous baseline in vehicle tracking by 12% / 18% in Success and Precision when using only 16 candidates.
3D vehicle detection and tracking from a monocular camera requires detecting and associating vehicles, and estimating their locations and extents together. It is challenging because vehicles are in constant motion and it is practically impossible to recover the 3D positions from a single image. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that jointly detects and tracks 3D vehicle bounding boxes. Our approach leverages 3D pose estimation to learn 2D patch association overtime and uses temporal information from tracking to obtain stable 3D estimation. Our method also leverages 3D box depth ordering and motion to link together the tracks of occluded objects. We train our system on realistic 3D virtual environments, collecting a new diverse, large-scale and densely annotated dataset with accurate 3D trajectory annotations. Our experiments demonstrate that our method benefits from inferring 3D for both data association and tracking robustness, leveraging our dynamic 3D tracking dataset.
We propose an algorithm for real-time 6DOF pose tracking of rigid 3D objects using a monocular RGB camera. The key idea is to derive a region-based cost function using temporally consistent local color histograms. While such region-based cost functions are commonly optimized using first-order gradient descent techniques, we systematically derive a Gauss-Newton optimization scheme which gives rise to drastically faster convergence and highly accurate and robust tracking performance. We furthermore propose a novel complex dataset dedicated for the task of monocular object pose tracking and make it publicly available to the community. To our knowledge, It is the first to address the common and important scenario in which both the camera as well as the objects are moving simultaneously in cluttered scenes. In numerous experiments - including our own proposed data set - we demonstrate that the proposed Gauss-Newton approach outperforms existing approaches, in particular in the presence of cluttered backgrounds, heterogeneous objects and partial occlusions.
Tracking humans that are interacting with the other subjects or environment remains unsolved in visual tracking, because the visibility of the human of interests in videos is unknown and might vary over time. In particular, it is still difficult for state-of-the-art human trackers to recover complete human trajectories in crowded scenes with frequent human interactions. In this work, we consider the visibility status of a subject as a fluent variable, whose change is mostly attributed to the subject's interaction with the surrounding, e.g., crossing behind another object, entering a building, or getting into a vehicle, etc. We introduce a Causal And-Or Graph (C-AOG) to represent the causal-effect relations between an object's visibility fluent and its activities, and develop a probabilistic graph model to jointly reason the visibility fluent change (e.g., from visible to invisible) and track humans in videos. We formulate this joint task as an iterative search of a feasible causal graph structure that enables fast search algorithm, e.g., dynamic programming method. We apply the proposed method on challenging video sequences to evaluate its capabilities of estimating visibility fluent changes of subjects and tracking subjects of interests over time. Results with comparisons demonstrate that our method outperforms the alternative trackers and can recover complete trajectories of humans in complicated scenarios with frequent human interactions.
Monocular cameras are one of the most commonly used sensors in the automotive industry for autonomous vehicles. One major drawback using a monocular camera is that it only makes observations in the two dimensional image plane and can not directly measure the distance to objects. In this paper, we aim at filling this gap by developing a multi-object tracking algorithm that takes an image as input and produces trajectories of detected objects in a world coordinate system. We solve this by using a deep neural network trained to detect and estimate the distance to objects from a single input image. The detections from a sequence of images are fed in to a state-of-the art Poisson multi-Bernoulli mixture tracking filter. The combination of the learned detector and the PMBM filter results in an algorithm that achieves 3D tracking using only mono-camera images as input. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated both in 3D world coordinates, and 2D image coordinates, using the publicly available KITTI object tracking dataset. The algorithm shows the ability to accurately track objects, correctly handle data associations, even when there is a big overlap of the objects in the image, and is one of the top performing algorithms on the KITTI object tracking benchmark. Furthermore, the algorithm is efficient, running on average close to 20 frames per second.
Visual object tracking is an important computer vision problem with numerous real-world applications including human-computer interaction, autonomous vehicles, robotics, motion-based recognition, video indexing, surveillance and security. In this paper, we aim to extensively review the latest trends and advances in the tracking algorithms and evaluate the robustness of trackers in the presence of noise. The first part of this work comprises a comprehensive survey of recently proposed tracking algorithms. We broadly categorize trackers into correlation filter based trackers and the others as non-correlation filter trackers. Each category is further classified into various types of trackers based on the architecture of the tracking mechanism. In the second part of this work, we experimentally evaluate tracking algorithms for robustness in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise. Multiple levels of additive noise are added to the Object Tracking Benchmark (OTB) 2015, and the precision and success rates of the tracking algorithms are evaluated. Some algorithms suffered more performance degradation than others, which brings to light a previously unexplored aspect of the tracking algorithms. The relative rank of the algorithms based on their performance on benchmark datasets may change in the presence of noise. Our study concludes that no single tracker is able to achieve the same efficiency in the presence of noise as under noise-free conditions; thus, there is a need to include a parameter for robustness to noise when evaluating newly proposed tracking algorithms.
TraQuad is an autonomous tracking quadcopter capable of tracking any moving (or static) object like cars, humans, other drones or any other object on-the-go. This article describes the applications and advantages of TraQuad and the reduction in cost (to about 250$) that has been achieved so far using the hardware and software capabilities and our custom algorithms wherever needed. This description is backed by strong data and the research analyses which have been drawn out of extant information or conducted on own when necessary. This also describes the development of completely autonomous (even GPS is optional) low-cost drone which can act as a major platform for further developments in automation, transportation, reconnaissance and more. We describe our ROS Gazebo simulator and our STATUS algorithms which form the core of our development of our object tracking drone for generic purposes.